The Chinuch of a ילד (young child) is very different from the Chinuch of a נער (older child) and the Chinuch of a נער is very different from the education of a boy who reaches the age of בר מצוה. 

The education of a ילד - young child - begins primarily in areas of cleanliness, modesty and proper manners. For example, a child must learn at meal times not to eat like a glutton. These things are seemingly small, but they are most fundamental to be worked on because they are the traits that differentiate a human being from an animal. 

The education of a נער is on a higher level. It includes learning the ברוכות of the different foods, developing a proper attitude to learning, respect for others and honor for his parent and teachers. 

The education of a boy who reaches בר מצוה emphasizes doing מצות beyond the letter of the law, following times of Davening with a Minyan on time, not wasting time, studying with diligence and learning from those who are superior to him. 

Educating children is done in this way, elevating the child from level to level until he reaches the proper level for his stage. 

(Excerpt from מאמר כללי  החינוך וההדרכה, by the Frierdiker Rebbe, chapter 8)